Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark, A.B.C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful? Because humans have an inherent need to ___1___ uncertainty, according to a recent study in Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is so strong that people will ___2___ to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will___3___.
In a series of four experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago Booth School Of Business and the Wisconsin School of Business tested students' willingness to ___4___ themselves to unpleasant stimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one ___5___, each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist? Half of the pens would ___6___ an electric shock when clicked.
Twenty-seven students were told which pens were rigged; another twenty-seven were told only that some were electrified. ___7___ left alone in the room, the students who did not know which ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more jolts than the students who knew what would ___8___. Subsequent experiments replicated this effect with other stimuli, ___9___ the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects.
The drive to ___10___ is deeply ingrained in humans, much the same as the basic drives for ___11___ or shelter, says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago, a co-author of the paper. Curiosity is often considered a good instinct—it can ___12___ new scientific advances, for instance—but sometimes such ___13___ can backfire. The insight that curiosity can drive you to do ___14___ things is a profound one.
Unhealthy curiosity is possible to ___15___, however. In a final experiment, participants who were encouraged to ___16___ how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to ___17___ to see such an image. These results suggest that imagining the ___18___ of following through on one's curiosity ahead of time can help determine ___19___ it is worth the endeavor. “Thinking about long-term ___20___ is key to mitigating the possible negative effects of curiosity,” He says. In other words, don't read online comments.
1.A .resolve B. protect C. discuss D. ignore
2. A refuse B. wait C. seek D .regret
3. A .rise B. last C. mislead D. hurt
4. A. alert B.tie C. expose D. treat
5. A. message B. trial C. review D. concept
6. A. remove B. weaken C. deliver D. interrupt
7. A. Unless B. If C. Though D. When
8. A. happen B. continue C. disappear D. change
9. A rather than B. such as C. regardless D .owing to
10. A. disagree B. forgive C. forget D. discover
11. A. pay B. marriage C. food D. school
12. A. begin with B. rest on C. learn from D. lead to
13. A. withdrawal B. inquiry C. persistence D. diligence
14. A. self-destructive B. self-reliant C. self-evident D. self-deceptive
15. A. resist B. define C. replace D. trace
16. A. predict B. overlook C. design D. conceal
17. A. remember B. choose C. promise D. pretend
18. A. relief B. plan C. outcome D. duty
19. A. whether B. why C. where D. how
20 .A. limitations B. Investments C. strategies D. consequences
解析： 固定搭配考查。根据原文语境，考查短语____ sb to sth 意为“让某人承受某事”。因此，C选项为正选。
解析： 根据上文，第二段句首提到in a series of four experiments,说明是在“实验”的语境。结合四个选项，[A]信息[B]实验[C]复习[D]观念，只有B选项和段落语境相符合。因此为正选。
解析： 动宾搭配。结合语境，“当点击的时候，一半的钢笔会____电流。”根据动宾搭配，本题需要一个动词来搭配电流，考查四个选项，[A]移除[B]削弱[C]传递[D]打扰 A选项更符合语境。
解析：Discover 与上文中的Curiosity 相对应。
解析： 本词与后文的Basic drives 的详细说明。与shelter一样都属于人类的基本需求。
Section II Reading Comprehension
Directions: Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each passage by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future.
Mr. Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and rote memorization, but practical, reports staff writer Stacy Teicher Khadaroo in this week’s cover story. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly bamboozled by a busted bike chain?
As Koziatek knows, there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffiti desk stuck with generations of discarded chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.
But he’s also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark of inferiority. Schools in the family of vocational education “have that stereotype ... that it’s for kids who can’t make it academically,” he says.
On one hand, that viewpoint is a logical product of America’s evolution. Manufacturing is not the economic engine that it once was. The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated. More education is the new mantra. We want more for our kids, and rightfully so.
But the headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all – and the subtle devaluing of anything less – misses an important point: That’s not the only thing the American economy needs. Yes, a bachelor’s degree opens more doors. But even now, 54 percent of the jobs in the country are middle-skill jobs, such as construction and high-skill manufacturing, according to the National Skills Coalition, a nonprofit advocacy group. But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained.
In other words, at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political head, frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing, one obvious solution is staring us in the face. There is a gap in working-class jobs, but the workers who need those jobs most aren’t equipped to do them. Koziatek’s Manchester School of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap.
Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call. When education becomes one-size-fits-all, it risks overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts.
21. A brokan bike chain is mentioned to show students’ lack of ___
A. mechanical memorization
B. academic training
C. practical ability
D. pioneering spirit
22. There exists the prejudice that vocational education is for kids who ___
A. are financially disadvantaged
B. are not academically successful
C. have a stereotyped mind
D. have no career motivation
23. We can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates ___
A. are entitled to more “educational privileges”
B. are reluctant to work in manufacturing
C. used to have more job opportunities
D. used to have big financial concerns
24. The headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all ___
A. helps create a lot of middle-skill jobs
B. may narrow the gap in working-class jobs
C. is expected to yield a better-trained workforce
D. indicates the overvaluing of higher education
25. The author’s attitude toward Koziate’s school can be described as ___
21. 答案 C practical ability
这是一道细节题，根据题干关键词可定位至第二段最后一句话,意思是”什么时候这种观点变得可接受了呢？学生应该能够说出美国第十三任总统的名字，但是却完全对坏了的自行车链束手无策”。从作者使用问句的形式就可判断出作者并不接受这种观点，即学生只学会书本上的知识而不具备实际能力。再结合上一句话即本段第二句话，Mr Koziatek是New Hampshire高中的一名老师，在这所学校，学习不只是书本上的知识，或者是为了考试，也不是为了机械化的记忆，而是为了实际的技能。能看出，作者认为学生们缺少的是实际技能，所以答案是C practical ability.
22. 答案 B are not academically successful
这是一道具体细节题，根据题干关键词职业教育对孩子存在的偏见可定位至第四段最后一句，意思是“在很多职业化教育的学校中，有这样一种老套的思想，那就是，职业教育是针对那些在学术上不能成功的那些孩子的。”根据这句话可确定答案就是B are not academically successful 。其他选项均不符合文意。
23．答案C used to have more job opportunities
这是一道细节推断题，根据题干第五段和high school graduates 回到原文定位致第五段第三句，说到美国经济曾经提供给高中毕业生的那种the job security已经在很大程度上evaporated也就是消失了，那说明过去的时候高中毕业生是有职业安全感的，故选C，其他选项都不在定位处，可以排除。
24.答案D indicate the overvaluing of higher education
这是一道事实细节题，根据题干内容“the headlong push”找到出处是第六段开头But后，发现后面还有一个and...和其并列，所以主要关注对这两部分的评价，后面有明显的标点：冒号出现，冒号后说that is not the only thing the American economy needs. 可以看出这句话对前面的否定，选项中只有D选项动词overvalue是负面词，而且提到主题词education。故选D。这道题最适合用感情色彩来排除与D相反的其他三个选项。
这是一道态度题，放在最末的态度题更倾向于到最后一段找答案。通过定位词Koziatek’s school 看到最后一段也确实提到了，说它是一个wake-up call。也就是在唤醒人们教育不应该是统一的形式，这样会overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts，也就是忽视人才的差异性。所以可以看出作者是支持的态度。
While fossil fuels – coal, oil, gas – still generate roughly 85 percent of the world’s energy supply, it’s clearer than ever that the future belongs to renewable sources such as wind and solar.The move to renewable is picking up momentum around the world: They now account for more than half of new power sources going on line.
Some growth stems from a commitment by governments and farsighted businesses to fund cleaner energy sources. But increasingly the story is about the plummeting prices of renewable, especially wind and solar. The cost of solar panels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close to one-third in the past eight years.
In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy source. In Scotland, for example, wind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes.While the rest of the world takes the lead, notably China and Europe, the United States is also seeing a remarkable shift. In March, for the first time, wind and solar power accounted for more than 10 percent of the power generated in the US, reported the US Energy Information Administration.
President Trump has underlined fossil fuels – especially coal – as the path to economic growth. In a recent speech in Iowa, a state he won easily in 2016, he dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source.But that message did not play well with many in Iowa, where wind turbines dot the fields and provide 36 percent of the state’s electricity generation – and where tech giants such as Facebook, Microsoft, and Google are being attracted by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers.
The question “what happens when the wind doesn’t blow or the sun doesn’t shine?” has provided a quick put-down for skeptics. But a boost in the storage capacity of batteries, and a dramatic drop in their cost, is making their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.
The advance is driven in part by vehicle manufacturers, who are placing big bets on battery-powered electric vehicles. Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads in 2017, this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.
While there’s a long way to go, the trend lines for renewable are spiking. The pace of change in energy sources appears to be speeding up – perhaps just in time to have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change.What Washington does – or doesn’t do – to promote alternative energy may mean less and less at a time of a global shift in thought.
26. The word “plummeting”(line3.para2)is closest in meaning to ______.
27. According to Paragraph 3.the use of renewable energy in America_______.
A. is progressing notably
B. is as extensive as in Europe
C. faces many challenges
D. has proved to be impractical
28. It can be learned that in Iowa_____.
A .wind is a widely used energy source
B. wind energy has replaced fossil fuels
C. tech giants are investing in clean energy
D. there is a shortage of clean energy supply
29. Which of following in true about clean energy according to paragraphs 5&6?
A. Its application has boosted battery storage
B. It is commonly used in can manufacturing.
C. Its continuous supply is becoming a reality.
D .Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult.
30. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy____.
A. will bring the US closer to other countries
B. will accelerate global environment change
C. is not really encouraged by the US government
D is not competitive enough with regard to its cost
26题 【B】 falling
解析：本题为词汇题，词汇题的解题，在于语境的理解。该换线词汇之后出现了价格prices;而紧接着下一句就出现了the cost has dropped，可见价格应该是下降的，故而选falling.
27题 【A】 is progressing notably
28题【A】 wind is a widely used energy source
29题 【C】 Its continuous supply is becoming a reality.
30题 【C】 is not really encouraged by the US government.
解析：本题属于细节性推理题，相当于细节题。选项中的B will accelerate global environment change与原文第二句内容明显不符，D选项 is not competitive enough with regard to its cost 也很容易被排除，因为cost压根没有在最后一段出现过。现在只剩下A 和C这两个选项。A 选项will bring the US factors closet to other countries ,改选项中的other countries 没有在最后一段出现过。C选项“美国政府并不是真正鼓励再生能源的发展”。对应本段最后一句话，最后一句提到华盛顿政府做或不做什么都may mean less and less...所以可以看出美国不应该是和其他国家更近，排除A，所以选C，美国不是真正支持可再生能源的。
31. 答案 ［B］user information
32. 答案［C］pose a risk to Facebook users
解析：细节题。根据题干关键词linking the phone number定位第二段第一句。该句提到Facebook向欧洲委员会承诺不会把用户的电话号与Facebook的身份认证连系到一起，但是协议通过之后Facebook立马失信。接下来提到“甚至都不清楚信息里面都有什么，也不知谁发的消息，发送的目的又是什么”。因此，可能会给用户造成风险。因此C项符合文意。
33. 答案 ［D］cannot keep pace with the changing market
解析：细节题。根据题干关键词competition law 定位到第三段第一句。该句指出“竞争法似乎成为解决这些不平等权力的唯一办法，但是此法案太过笨拙”。下一句提到“一方面，相比于数据经济变化的速度，此法案发展是非常缓慢的”。由此可知，该法案跟不上当前市场变化的步伐。因此D项为正确答案。
34. 答案［D］the services are paid for by advertisers.
解析：根据题目中的because 可确定为因果细节题。题干中的信息出现在第三段后半部分，是题目中的原词 competition law as presently interpreted，而原因在其后面的句子。下文写到，the users of their services are not，读到这里的not，一定要找而是谁。继续读下一句，That would be the people who buy advertising from them…，与选项对应，可得出［D］the services are paid for by advertisers。
35. 答案［D］the relationship between digital giants and their users.
解析：根据题目中is used to illustrate可判断为例证题，要找到the ants analogy论据所证明的论点；论点在论据之前，因此先找到论据the ants analogy，再找到论据前的论点句。所以本题定位到最后一段的第一句，The product …is data，and we…convert our lives to data…。此句中，data即digital giants，we 即 users。因此答案为［D］the relationship between digital giants and their users.
36. 答案［D］keep to your focus time
解析：细节题。根据题干的mastering the art of deep work定位到第二段首句。该句指出“有很多种掌握深度工作的方法-不论是专注于指定工作时长时间的后退，或者养成惯例，还是当你一天有闲暇之余采用纪实的方式捕捉深度工作的瞬间”。接着提到“不论是那种方式，关键在于确定你的专注力时间长度并保持专注”。由此可知，D项为正确答案。
37. 答案［B］detailed plans may not be as fruitful as expected
38. 答案［D］an essential factor in accomplishing any work.
解析：根据题目Newport得出本题目为细节题中的文中人物观点题。根据题干中的idleness可定位到倒数第三段，idleness is not，读到这里依然需要看下文，下面提到it is as…as…，is necessary to getting any work done。再对应选项，可直接选出［D］an essential factor in accomplishing any work。
39. 答案［A］can bring about greater efficiency.
解析：根据题目中的Pillay believes 可得出本题目为细节题中的文中人物观点题型。根据题目中的信息，可以定位到倒数第二段最后一句，明确指出they tend to be more efficient。然后对应选项得出［A］can bring about greater efficiency。
40. 答案［A］approaches to getting more done in less time.
解析：根据题目的mainly about可知为文章主旨题，首先可以通过题目的复现内容找与文章主旨有关的词汇，题目中反复出现了focus内容，可判断与人们的注意力有。其次，文章主旨一般在开篇第一段或第二段会出现，第一段引用Cal Newport的观点指出focus without distraction话题，第二段就提到了主题approaches to mastering thd art of deep work，此刻主题已明确，并且第四段有明显的证明another approach。所以本题选［A］approaches to getting more done in less time。
Directions：You are going to read a list of headings and a text. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraph (41-45). Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET .（10 points）
A. Be present
B. Just say it
C. Ask for an opinion
D. Name, places, things
E. Find the "me too" s
F. Pay a unique compliment
G. Skip the small talk
Five ways to make conversation with anyone
Conversations are links, which means when you have a conversation with a new person a link gets formed and every conversation you have after that moment will strengthen the link.
You meet new people every day: the grocery worker, the cab driver, and new people at work or the security guard at the door. Simply starting a conversation with them will form a link.
Here are five simple ways that you can make the fit move and start a conversation with strangers.
Suppose you are in the room with someone you don’t know & you look across the room and you see a stranger and something within you says that I want to talk with this person & you know something that mostly happens with all of us, you wanted to say something the First word. It just won’t come out. It feels like it stuck somewhere and refused to come out. I know the feeling & here is my advice “Just get it out”.
Just think what the worst could happen. They won’t talk with you. Well they are not talking with you now.
I truly believe that once you said first word everything else just gets flows. So keep it simple “Hi” ,”Hey” or Hello & do what the best person in you does gather all of the enthusiasm, the energy, put on a big smile and say “Hi”.
It’s problem all of us face; you have limited time with the person that you want to talk with and you want to make this talk memorable.
Honestly, if we got stuck in the rut of “h”, “hello” ,“how are you” and “what’s going on?”, you will fail to give the initial jolt to the conversation that can make it so memorable.
So don’t be afraid to ask more personal questions, Trust me, you’ll be surprised to see how much people are willing to share if you just ask.
When you meet the person for the first time make an efforts to find the things which you and that person is in common so that you can build the conversation from that point. When you start conversation from that point & then move outwards from there you will find all of the sudden that conversation become lot easier.
Imagine you are pouring your heart out to someone and they are just busy their phone, and if you ask for their attention you get the response “I can multitask”.
So when someone tries to communicate with you, just be in that communication wholeheartedly. Make eye contact. Trust me, eye contact, you can feel the conversation.
You all came into a conversation where you met the person, but after some time you may have met again and you forgotten their name. Isn’t that awkward!
So remember the little details of the people you met or you talked with. Perhaps places they have been to, the places they want to go, the things they like, the things they hate-whatever you talk about.
When you remember such things you can automatically become investor in their wellbeing. So they feel responsibility to you to keep that relationship going.
That’s it. Five amazing ways that you can make conversation with almost anyone. Every person is a really good book to read, or to have a conversation with.
41.B Just say it.
解析：41标号下面一段反复提到“say something”、“it just won’t come out”以及该段末句提到作者的建议“just get it out”，根据这些仿佛出现的短语含义，本段段落中心大意为和陌生人交谈就是需要“说出来”，对应B选项 just say it，故选B。
42.G Skip the small talk.
解析：标号下面第一段提到和一个人谈话以及使这段谈话记忆深刻的时间是非常有限的，紧接着第二段提到避免说一些“hi”、“hello”、“how are you?”、“what’s going on?”这样的简单谈话能使交谈更难忘，下面第三段提到作者建议是要问一些更个人的问题，这样能达到更好的谈话效果。因此，42下面三段信息主要大意为省去和交谈者的简单谈话，对应F选项中skip the small talk，因此正确答案为F选项。
43.E Find the “me too’s.
【解析】该段第一句段落分论点主句提到“make an effort to find the things which you and that person have in common”,也就是努力找到你和谈话者共同的话题来进行交谈。对应D选项Find the “me too” s,即找到谈话者和自己一样的事情。本句最后一句话也提到用这样的方法谈话更简单。因此，答案选D选项。
44. A Be Present.
【解析】 44标号下面一段举例一个当自己全身心投入到和对方交流但是对方处于 状态的情况，谨记着下一段给出作者建议“just be in that communication wholeheartedly”以及“make eye contact”,不管是提议全身心投入到谈话中，还是提议要进行眼神交流，都对应A选项。 Be present, 即“在场”故选A.
【解析】45标号下面第一段提到当一段时间之后再遇到之前谈话的人，可能会忘记他的名字，这一点是很奇怪的。紧接着下面一段提到作者的建议“remember the little detail of the people you met or you talked with”，即让我们记得谈话者的姓名这些小细节，接着，又提到不能忘了“places”以及对方所喜欢的“things”，都对应E选项中原词Name，Place，Thing，因此答案选E。
In this section there is a test in English. Translate it into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET. (15points)
A fifth grader gets a homework assignment to select his future career path from a list of occupations. He ticks “astronaut” but quickly adds “scientist” to the list and select it as well. The boy is convinced that if he reads enough, he can explore as many career paths as he likes. And so he reads—everything from encyclopedias to science fiction novels. He reads so passionately that his parents have to institute a “no reading policy” at the dinner table.
That boy was Bill Gates, and he hasn’t stopped reading yet—not even after becoming one of the most successful people on the planet. Nowadays，his reading material has changed from science fiction and reference book：recently，he revealed that he reads at least 50 nonfiction books a year. Gates chooses nonfiction titles because they explain how the world works. “Each book opens up new avenues of knowledge,” Gates says.
Suppose you have to cancel your travel plan and will not be able to visit Professor Smith. Write an email to
1) apologize and explain your situation
2) suggest a future meeting
You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET.
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use "Li Ming" instead.
You do not need to write the address. (10 points)
Dear Professor Smith,
I’m writing this letter in purpose of expressing my sincere apology to you. I feel terribly sorry. But I hope you can forgive me if you know the reason.
I have received a message from my manager that there is something wrong with the project which I’m in charge of. I have to organize an urgent meeting to figure out some strategies to solve the problem.
Once again, I am very sorry for any inconvenience caused. I will appreciate if you can accept my apologies and understand my situation. I wonder if you are available this Friday. Please let me know when you are at your convenience. Looking forward to your reply!
Write an essay based on the following chart. In your essay, you should
1) interpret the chart, and
2) give your comments.
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15points)
The pie chart above evidently illustrates various target elements in terms of consumers’ choosing restaurants in a certain city in 2017. To be specific. distinguishing feature took a lion’s share, accounting for approximately 36.3%. While service and surroundings made up around 26.8% and 24.2% respectively. However, the least proportions were price and other factors, occupying roughly 8% and 4.7%.
What triggers this phenomenon? Maybe at least two reasons can be identified to contribute to this matter. But the most important is that along with the development of economy, people’s living standards have been improved remarkably, as a consequence of which, an increasing amount of individuals focus on superior service and favorable surroundings when they choose restaurants rather than price. Simultaneously, there is another essential factor that after resolving the issue of food and clothing, quite a few consumers’ food conception has transformed dramatically, to the extent that they increasingly pursue spiritual consumption, which should be also taken into account.
Based on what has been discussed above: a conclusion can be drawn safely that more up-scale food services will be prevailing in modern food market. And it is predictable that those restaurants with favorable service: distinctive features and excellent circumstances will be beloved by more customers in some years ahead. However, it is advisable for the public to consume rationally, avoiding extravagance and waste.